What is the difference between the 'sudo' and 'admin' group?


By default the sudo group is not used in Ubuntu:

the user created during installation belongs to admin group, not sudo; no guide or manual I ever read advices to use the sudo group; no one feels the need to use the sudo group, because the admin group can do all one needs.

Conversely, on Debian the group enabled in /etc/sudoers is the sudo group, and there is no admin group. But the user created during installation is not put in that group, because Debian has the root account enabled. You should do it explicitly, if you want to.

Also, Fedora is similar to Debian, having root enabled and no default privileges for the user create during installation. But the administrative group configured in /etc/sudoers is the more traditional group wheel.

In conclusion, I think there is no use for sudo group in Ubuntu, simply it is a Debian...

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I cannot login as root while doing su - because I do not have the root password - I mean I have my user password with which I can sudo "command" but this password does not work for su - I can log in as root with sudo bash with my user password and I can login while doing sudo sh but then I get a command prompt in this form #

su -:

This will change your user identifier and inherit the environment variables as if you had logged in with that user. Normally you would use the format su - to login as the user . If you drop the "userid" it assumes you are trying to login as root - which you can't (unless you change the root password).

sudo bash & sudo sh:

Anything after the sudo is a program to run - so in these cases you are asking to run a couple of shells - bash and dash respectively. use man bash and man sh for more details on the different shells.

Related Questions:

August 14, 2011 11:34 AM


In Linux...

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Possible Duplicate:
“Nothing to tell” versus “nothing to say”

Both words seem to be used interchangeably. I generally don't differentiate between them and intuitively pick one over the other. Is there a standardized way to distinguish between the two?

The verb tell is transitive, and takes a direct object. The verb said does not. You should use tell when you're emphasizing the fact that you're communicating something to somebody:

Let me tell you how to get to San Jose.
*Let me say to you how to get to San Jose.
Let me tell you a story.
*Let me say a story to you.

You should use say when there is no communication involved:

Say "rubber baby buggy bumpers" ten times fast.
*Tell me "rubber baby buggy bumpers" ten times fast.

Most of the time, both verbs can be used:

Tell me you didn't mean that.
Say you didn't mean that.

"To say" is simply to speak; to have words coming out of your mouth...

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The Rust tutorial, and now book claim there is a difference between while true and loop, but that it isn't super important to understand at this stage.

If you need an infinite loop, you may be tempted to write this:

while true {

However, Rust has a dedicated keyword, loop, to handle this case:

loop {

Rust's control-flow analysis treats this construct differently than a while true, since we know that it will always loop. The details of what that means aren't super important to understand at this stage, but in general, the more information we can give to the compiler, the better it can do with safety and code generation, so you should always prefer loop when you plan to loop infinitely.

Having done a little bit of compiler-type work, I have to wonder what possible semantic difference there is, since it would be trivial for the compiler to figure out both are an infinite loop.

So, how does the compiler treat them...

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As a follow on, a .a file is an "ar" archive. Not unlike a tar archive, it stores .o or object files, allowing them to be pulled out of the archive, and linked into a program, among other things. You could use ar to store other files if you wanted.

You can get a listing of the members of an ar file with the -t parameter, for instance:

ar -t /usr/lib/libc.a

A .so file is a "shared object" file, and has a lot more information available to the linker so that members can be linked in to a loading program as rapidly as possible.

For instance, try:

objdump -T /lib/libc-2.11.1.so

(or whatever version of libc.so you have in your /lib directory.) Note that a .so file could also just contain a linker script directing it to find the file elsewhere, or use something else.

Interestingly, a .so file can also be a full fledged program. For instance, trying running /lib/libc.so.6. (Sadly, this last part doesn't seem to work on more modern systems. Not that it's a...

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Many thanks again, Paco.

I’ve just given this (or, these? Which one?) “after spending ...” and “after having spent ...” another thought, and may I ask the following questions:

“After spending 2 years in Sydney” – may indicate that after that 2 years, more time can still be spent in Sydney, correct?

“After having spent years in Sydney” – on the other hand, this is a clear indication that 2 years is (or, are? Which one?) the limit, the speaker’s next destination would not be Sydney. Is this interpretation correct?

Sorry about the long and tedious questions, and I do really appreciate your time and effort here. Many more...

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This question already has an answer here:

Is there a difference between using a dict literal and a dict constructor? 10 answers

Is there any difference in the following processing before passing it to template?

def index(): # return dict(result=result) def index(): # return {"result":result}

Answer 1

As you can see, the only difference is in the syntax. Both return a new, regular, ordinary dictionary object, with one key/item pair. But be aware that the second form requires the key to be in quotes, whereas the first form does not. Depending on your situation, one might be much better than the other. Personally, I prefer the first form, although the second is more flexible.

Answer 2

The only noticeable difference is that dict() technically is a global.

In [1]: def index(): ...: result = "abc" ...: return dict(result=result) ...: In [2]: index() Out[2]: {'result': 'abc'} In [3]: def...
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© Ugur Akinci


I’m working on a software product that has a GUI. Currently, we have a user guide and a system administration guide.

The user guide mainly focuses on tasks that can be done thru the GUI; the admin guide mainly focuses on system maintenance and administration.

However, there’s no distinguishing line between the two guides.

The user guide contains tasks that must be done by administrators; the admin guide contains a few tasks that must be done thru the GUI.

So my teammates and I started to think maybe we can improve the structure of those two docs. We have 3 options:

Divide contents based on user roles. If we define the users as those other than administrators, we will move some tasks requiring admin rights to the admin guide. Move all tasks that can be done thru the GUI to the user guide and we mark each task with a...
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Less buildings to focus on, regardless of TH level.

And to those who think this is just a TH10 thing...in each of the last 2 nights, my TH7 base has been hit by the 29% crew. Fortunately, I can mitigate that a bit by re-arming...but no, my TH7 is currently shieldless, by someone else's intent.

It's not rich in resources. They are very clearly planned attacks by higher level bases (so no, the snide remark about better base design doesn't wash). There is very little that can be done in defending against a higher-level full army focused on defeating less than a third of a lower level base. My war kill squads can get that much, easy.

Prior to the update...people were encouraged NOT to stop short by the way the economy was set up. However, since that set up was not within the designers' intent, that encouragement was removed...and predictably, something far more negative (but within the system's design) took its place. The 29% thing can be debated as to whether it is decent...

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What is the difference between Linux and UNIX operating systems?

UNIX is copyrighted name only big companies are allowed to use the UNIX copyright and name, so IBM AIX and Sun Solaris and HP-UX all are UNIX operating systems. The Open Group holds the UNIX trademark in trust for the industry, and manages the UNIX trademark licensing program.

Most UNIX systems are commercial in nature.

Linux is a UNIX Clone

But if you consider Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) standards then Linux can be considered as UNIX. To quote from Official Linux kernel README file:

Linux is a Unix clone written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX compliance.

However, “Open Group” do not approve of the construction “Unix-like”, and consider it misuse of their UNIX trademark.

Linux Is Just a Kernel

Linux is just a kernel. All Linux distributions includes GUI...

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What is Auditing?

Auditing refers to the periodic examination of accounts, documents and vouchers in a corporate world. This financial certainty will help the people understand the ascertained workplace. Here the vouchers and accounts cannot be fulfilled. Auditing will be done in both corporate and in public sector. It recognizes all the possible evidences that evaluates and formulates the opinion on the basis of communication that is carried out. Let us now look at few advantages and disadvantages of auditing.

Merits or Advantages of Financial Audit:

Auditing is a best practice that ensures the growth of public companies. Many of the stakeholders of business are financial statements of the audit. Some of them are listed below:

Auditing is considered to be the place of substantive testing and the need to be verified. It is considerable to follow the set of rules. It mentions maximum of the costs so that people can have prior intimation...

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Linux System is much secured than any of its counterpart. One of the way to implement security in Linux is the user management policy and user permission and normal users are not authorized to perform any system operations.

If a normal user needs to perform any system wide changes he needs to use either ‘su‘ or ‘sudo‘ command.

Linux: su v/s sudo

NOTE – This article is more applicable to Ubuntu based distributions, but also applicable to most of the popular Linux distributions.

‘su’ Vs ‘sudo’

‘su‘ forces you to share your root password to other users whereas ‘sudo‘ makes it possible to execute system commands without root password. ‘sudo‘ lets you use your own password to execute system commands i.e., delegates system responsibility without root password.

What is ‘sudo’?

‘sudo‘ is a root binary setuid, which executes root commands on behalf of authorized users and the users need to enter their own password to execute system command...

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