What is the difference between apt and apt-get?

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Ubuntu 16.04 is out now, and it’s packed with exciting new changes. You have snap packages, BSD’s popular file system – ZFS – and other things. One thing you might not have heard about, as little things tend to get lost in the fray, is Apt.

What’s Apt? It’s a new package manager for Ubuntu that is poised to take over for “Apt-get.” It’s built to be more efficient, more secure, and more user friendly. So what is Canonical thinking by introducing Apt? Are there any real differences between Apt and Apt-get? Let’s find out!

Apt was introduced in 16.04 to simplify the package manager and to merge multiple commands into one single command. The functions from “apt-get” have been taken and have been created to function in similar ways in Apt.

Despite the fact that these new Apt commands are created to function similar to the old Apt-get commands, these new commands are not calling the old ones. They’re completely new – fresh commands to interact with...

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The difference is whether the dependencies are needed at runtime as opposed to at buildtime.

For instance, maybe I’m building a binary which uses openssl. At build time I would need the openssl header files, which are in libssl-dev. I would then list this as a Build-Depends.

However, the resulting binary and package don’t need the header and other development files, so at install time I don’t need libssl-dev. It wouldn’t be in Depends, then. But libssl, the runtime library my binary linked against, would need to be in Depends.

The man sections you quoted indicate this (it talks about “satisfy the build dependencies” of a package), but without prior knowledge of when Build-Depends are used, this can be confusing.

Have a look at the Debian policy guide for definitions of control file fields:

http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html

here’s the section on Build-Depends. Note it’s under the “dependencies for source packages”...

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The new book, The Debian System, goes into great and enlightening detail about that and other subjects ... I'm about half way thru it cover to cover. Will write a review when I'm at least 3/4 through. Great book, tho, for serious Debian users.

tnx,

no I've never heared of deborphan, so I just settled with aptitude

So, if one were to use Aptitude to uninstall something that was installed with apt, would that still remove dependencies?

No, try deborphan for that.

I guess I have something more to add to the ongoing confusion.

Accroding to Debian Docs at
http://www.nl.debian.org/doc/manuals...ackage.en.html

Code:

APT uses /var/lib/apt/lists/* for tracking available packages while dpkg uses /var/lib/dpkg/available. If you...
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Brief: This beginner’s guide shows you what you can do with apt-get commands in Linux, how to use it to find new packages, install and upgrade new packages and clean your system.

If you have started using Ubuntu or any other Ubuntu based Linux distribution such as Linux Mint, elementary OS etc, you must have come across apt-get command by now.

In fact, first in the list of things to do after installing Ubuntu is to use apt-get update and apt-get upgrade. Now, you might be aware of a few commands and their usage but perhaps you might not be aware of other apt-get commands and their usage.

In this guide for beginners, I am going to explain you various of apt-get commands with examples so that you can use them as an expert Linux user.

What is apt-get?

Ubuntu is derived from Debian Linux. And Debian uses dpkg packaging system. A packaging system is a way to provide programs and applications for installation. This way, you don’t have to build a...

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On the apt-get man's page, one can find this:

install pkg(s)
This option is followed by one or more packages desired for installation. Each package is a package name, not a fully qualified filename (for instance, in a Fedora Core system, glibc would be the argument provided, not glibc-2.4.8.i686.rpm).
All packages required by the package(s) specified for installation will also be retrieved and installed.
[...]

build-dep source_pkg
Causes apt-get to install/remove packages in an attempt to satisfy the build dependencies for a source package.

It sonds like both of those are trying to satisfy dependencies, but I had different results while installing matplotlib with each of those: apt-get intall didn't work with my subsequent pip install matplotlib in my virtualenv, while apt-get build-dep did*.

* Yeah, I needed to install matplotlib in a venv, but pip couldn't resolve some of the dependencies, so I lazily used apt in order to...

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On Thursday 13 August 2009 07:21:59 pm Steven Vollom wrote:


> On Thursday 13 August 2009 04:13:36 pm clay weber wrote:
> > Steven Vollom wrote:
> > > What are the differences between the two? I typed in sudo apt-get
> > > install updates
> >
> > If you typed in EXACTLY 'sudo apt-get install updates', then you WILL
> > get something wrong as the syntax and command for what you are doing is
> > incorrect.
> >
> > when using apt, the command syntax is this:
> > 'sudo apt-get '
> >
> > so in the command you used above, you are telling apt to install a
> > package with the name 'updates', which of course does not exist.
>
> When I use sudo aptitude install update it produced work. I am confused a
> bit here still, because I thought I used the term updates with aptitude,
> but because it worked, I assume it was just update.

That command does produce some output, but...

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Aptitude and apt-get are two of the popular tools which handle package management. Both are capable of handling all kinds of activities on packages including installation, removal, search etc. But still there are differences between both the tools which make users prefer one over the other. What are those differences that make these two tools to be considered separately is the scope of this article.

Difference Between APT and Aptitude

What is Apt

Apt or Advanced Packaging Tool is a free and open source software which gracefully handles software installation and removal. Initially it was designed for Debian’s .deb packages but it has been made compatible with RPM Package Manager.

Apt is whole command line with no GUI. Whenever invoked from command line along with specifying the name of package to be installed, it finds that package in configured list of sources specified in ‘/etc/apt/sources.list’ along with the list of dependencies for that package and...

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English

Adjective

(

en-adj

)

Suitable; appropriate; fit or fitted; suited. Tonight there’s a full moon, which is apt , since the election night will bring out the lunatics. (of persons or things) Having a habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely; disposed towards. This tree, if unprotected, is apt to be stripped of its leaves by a leaf-cutting ant. Ready]]; especially fitted or [[qualify|qualified (to do something); quick to learn; prompt; expert; as, a pupil apt to learn; an apt scholar. (rfdate) An apt wit. —Johnson. (rfdate) (Although I) live a thousand years, I shall not find myself so apt to die. —Shakespeare

Synonyms

(split by senses) * disposed, predisposed, inclined, liable, tending towards * appropriate, suitable, meet * fit, qualified * prompt, quick * ready * See also

Anagrams

*

English

Etymology 1

Origin uncertain: apparently a conflation of (wone) and wont (participle...
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This Frequently Asked Questions document is intended to help system administrators and users of the Ubuntu Server edition. See the section sources at the bottom of the page for more information. And please update the document if you have new information or even new questions

Business Questions

What's the difference between desktop and server?

The first difference is in the CD contents. The "Server" CD avoids including what Ubuntu considers desktop packages (packages like X, Gnome or KDE), but does include server related packages (Apache2, Bind9 and so on). Using a Desktop CD with a minimal installation and installing, for example, apache2 from the network, one can obtain the exact same result that can be obtained by inserting the Server CD and installing apache2 from the CD-ROM. The Ubuntu Server Edition installation process is slightly different from the Desktop Edition. Since by default Ubuntu Server doesn't have a GUI, the process is menu driven, very...
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As the man apt-get page says:

remove - Packages installed are removed (Does NOT include configuration files)

purge - Purge is identical to remove except that packages are removed and purged. Purge meaning that any configuration files are deleted too.

This of course, does not apply to packages that hold configuration files inside the user's home folder (eg: /home/SexyNoJutsuUser), this files will not be touched ( Why does "Purge" not remove everything related to an app? )

So for example, if you were to remove Chrome, Firefox, XBMC or any other that holds some configuration files inside your /home folder, this files will stay there.

On the other hand if you were to install apache, squid, mysql or any other services similar that save their files in /etc, this configuration files will be deleted if you use...

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The difference is whether the dependencies are needed at runtime as opposed to at buildtime.

For instance, maybe I'm building a binary which uses openssl. At build time I would need the openssl header files, which are in libssl-dev. I would then list this as a Build-Depends.

However, the resulting binary and package don't need the header and other development files, so at install time I don't need libssl-dev. It wouldn't be in Depends, then. But libssl, the runtime library my binary linked against, would need to be in Depends.

The man sections you quoted indicate this (it talks about "satisfy the build dependencies" of a package), but without prior knowledge of when Build-Depends are used, this can be confusing.

Have a look at the Debian policy guide for definitions of control file fields:

http://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ch-controlfields.html

here's the section on Build-Depends. Note it's under the "dependencies for source packages"...

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See the manual page for apt-get.

-d, --download-only Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or installed.

The 2 options are the same and do identical actions. So you can use either one.

In general: most times options come in 2 forms: short and long. From apt-get you can also use -f, --fix-broken or -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing or -q, --quiet. All of these groups mean the same and will do the same.

Some people prefer long options. Some prefer short options. In software languages (like Python) you have a method where you can split option + value into an array. And it then also will have a method to define sets of options for short and long version. So it is possible to satisfy everyone's need for options :)

apt-get download was added in version 0.8.11 of apt as another form of -d where the download is done to the current...

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Keep in mind that most of the times instead of apt-get upgrade what you want to do is apt-get dist-upgrade

fdierreJan 9 '12 at 23:41 @TravisR Not really. dist-upgrade won't upgrade to a new OS, but will upgrade to a new kernel (common enough) or a different set of dependencies (common enough) or remove dependencies that don't matter after an upgrade (also common). If you're on a home or office system, most of the time you want dist-upgrade, not upgrade. It's if you are upgrading several systems, or one that you need kept in a well-defined state that you'd want upgrade. For "regular" users (their own machine), dist-upgrade is the one to go for.

Jon HannaApr 25 '14 at 22:08 So do you mean that "apt-get upgrade" will do nothing if not followed by "apt-get update"? If this is so, what is the real use of "apt-get update"? Then why the "update" is not included in "upgrade"?

...

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apt-get update updates the list of available packages and their versions, but it does not install or upgrade any packages.

apt-get upgrade actually installs newer versions of the packages you have. After updating the lists, the package manager knows about available updates for the software you have installed. This is why you first want to update.

apt-get dist-upgrade, in addition to performing the function of apt-get upgrade, also intelligently handles changing dependencies with new versions of packages and will attempt to upgrade the most important packages at the expense of less important ones if necessary. Thus, the apt-get dist-upgrade command may actually remove some packages in rare but necessary...

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The error There is no public key available for the following key IDs indicates a serious security issue: an operating-system package cannot be checked for integrity with its public key, because its public key is missing.

If the message were:

There is no public key available for the following key IDs: 1397BC53640DB551

You can use this command to find out which repository uses the key:

for n in `ls /var/lib/apt/lists/*gpg`; do echo "$n" ; gpg --list-packets "$n" | grep 1397BC53640DB551; done

Which in this example is the Google's repository for Chrome:

/var/lib/apt/lists/dl.google.com_linux_chrome_deb_dists_stable_Release.gpg

If you trust Google, its government, etc., you should find out where the key is and add it with:

wget -q -O - https://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | apt-key add...
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Simple and easy solution: just specify the unwanted packages with an extra - after each of them.

Example without the - switch:

root@debian:~# apt-get install bsd-mailx Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following extra packages will be installed: exim4-base exim4-config exim4-daemon-light liblockfile-bin liblockfile1 [...]

Example using the switch to avoid installing exim4-base. Notice the - at the end:

root@debian:~# apt-get install bsd-mailx exim4-base- Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done Package 'exim4-base' is not installed, so not removed The following extra packages will be installed: liblockfile-bin liblockfile1 ssmtp [...]

As you can see, apt-get does not try anymore to install the exim4-base package, and it does not try to install its various dependencies (exim4-config etc).

And if you were wrong and needed that exim4-base...

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One of the renowned search tool on Unix-like systems which can be used to search for anything whether it be a file, or a line or multiple lines in file is grep utility. It is very vast in functionality which can be attributed to the large number of options it supports like: searching using string pattern, or reg-ex pattern or perl based reg-ex etc.

Difference Between grep, egrep and fgrep in Linux

Due its varying functionalities, it has many variants including grep, egrep (Extended GREP), fgrep (Fixed GREP), pgrep (Process GREP), rgrep (Recursive GREP) etc. But these variants have minor differences to original grep which has made them popular and to be used by various Linux programmers for specific tasks.

Main thing that remains to be investigated is what are the differences between the three main variants i.e. ‘grep’, ‘egrep’ and ‘fgrep’ of grep that makes Linux users choose one or the other version as per requirement.

Some Special Meta-Characters of...

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