What does apt-get install do under the hood?


Mostly, apt-get does the following things:

checks for dependencies (and asks to install them), downloads the package, verifies it and then tells dpkg to install it.

dpkg will:

extract the package and copy the content to the right location, and check for pre-existing files and modifications on them, run package maintainer scripts: preinst, postinst, (and prerm, postrm before these, if a package is being upgraded) execute some actions based on triggers

You might be interested in the maintainer scripts, which are usually located at /var/lib/dpkg/info/.{pre,post}{rm,inst}. These are usually shell scripts, but there's no hard rule. For example:

$ ls /var/lib/dpkg/info/xml-core.{pre,post}{rm,inst} /var/lib/dpkg/info/xml-core.postinst /var/lib/dpkg/info/xml-core.postrm /var/lib/dpkg/info/xml-core.preinst /var/lib/dpkg/info/xml-core.prerm

In short: apt-get install does everything that is needed that your system can successfully execute the new installed...

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No stupid questions. Everyone is from fresh man.

1, adb install will install your application under folder /data/app/

with your application package name. For example, you application is

MainApplication.apk and its package name is


After install it use this command, there will be an apk under

folder /data/app/ and its name is com.android.mainapplication.apk.

2, not sure about command adb shell && pm install ..... I have never
use that before.

3, adb push is to push the apk file directly into folder system/app/
and data/app/ and it is mostly like install. but with name different.
For example, adb push MainApplication.apk will create a file like /

Post by Chi Zhang

Hi everybody, this is my first post ever. I hope this is not a stupid

question :-)

1. adb install

2. adb shell && pm install

3. you can...

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What does the apt-get install ... command do?

When I enter apt-get install ... command, there are some texts appearing on the screen, but that does not have enough information for me. I want to know if any file is created / edited, any service is started and other activities...

Is there any .sh file executed when the apt-get install ... run? If so, how can I see the content of that sh file?

The reason for this question is recently I tried to install tomcat7 with apt-get install tomcat7. Everything works fine until I install tomcat7-admin (manager web application), the server became unresponsive to any request. I tried this many times, and this always happen.

Mostly, apt-get does the following things:

checks for dependencies (and asks to install them), downloads the package, verifies it and then tells dpkg to install it.

dpkg will:

extract the package and copy the content to the right location, and check for pre-existing files and...
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This question already has an answer here:

What does apt-get install do under the hood? 4 answers

Just simple answer is :
apt can be consider as front-end for dpkg

But more than that apt is complete package manager for update,install,upgrade,dist-upgrade and a lot of other things check this https://help.ubuntu.com/community/AptGet/Howto

sudo apt update checks all the configured source for latest package available there and it downloads all the details for package available for installation.
you can know a lot by man apt

update (apt-get(8)) update is used to download package information from all configured sources. Other commands operate on this data to e.g. perform package upgrades or search in and display details about all packages available for installation.

Now on performing sudo apt install if there is package available for installation it start downloading the package...

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In earlier Ubuntu versions, you can create desktop shortcuts launching favorite applications on right-click-desktop-context-menu. You can create the desktop launchers to quickly run a script and launch system locations, etc. But, Ubuntu 12.04 doesn’t have this option on right-click context menu. This tutorial shows how to easily create desktop launchers in Ubuntu 12.04 Precise using nautilus plugin called arronax.

Arronax is a plugin for Nautilus to create and modify application starters (technically: .desktop files).

Arronax adds a menu item “Create starter for this file” to the context menu (that’s the menu you get when you right-click a file in the file manager). If the file is an application starter you get an item “Modify this starter” instead.

If you have icons on your desktop enabled Arronax adds a menu item “Create starter” to your desktop’s context menu.

Then you’ll get this window to modify the launcher.

See the...

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In short: apt-get install does everything that is needed that your system can successfully execute the new installed software application.

Longer version:


From the manpage:

All packages required by the package(s) specified for installation will also be retrieved and installed.

Those packages are stored on a repository in the network (internet). So, apt-get downloads all the needed packages into a temporary directory (/var/cache/apt/archives/). They will be downloaded from a web- or a ftp-server. They are specified in the so called sources.list; a list of repositories for the package manager apt. From then on, they get installed one by one procedurally.

The first ones to be installed are the ones, that have no further dependencies; so no other package has to be installed for them to work properly. Trough that, other packages (that had dependencies previously) haven't now dependencies anymore. The system keeps doing that...

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-f --fix-broken Fix; attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place. This option, when used with install/remove, can omit any packages to permit APT to deduce a likely solution. Any Package that are specified must completely correct the problem. The option is sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time; APT itself does not allow broken package dependencies to exist on a system. It is possible that a system's dependency structure can be so corrupt as to require manual intervention (which usually means using dselect(8) or dpkg --remove to eliminate some of the offending packages). Use of this option together with -m may produce an error in some situations. Configuration Item:...
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Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr) will be released tomorrow and since many of you will install it as soon as it's released (or maybe you're already using Ubuntu 14.04), here's a list of 10 useful things to do to get a near perfect desktop.

While the tweaks below are targeted at Unity, many of them also work with other Ubuntu flavors like Xubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu or Ubuntu GNOME.

Update: the instructions / things to do below also apply for the latest Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn), except for:

1.2 (Pidgin Indicator is no longer required because Pidgin now ships with a Unity integration plugin; you can still use Pidgin Indicator if you want though); 3.1 (Firefox now supports H224 without any tweaks); 4.1 (you can continue to use Pipelight for various web services that require Silverlight, but that's no longer required for Netflix - to use Netflix with HTML5, simply install Google Chrome and it should work without any additional tweaks - that's now also the...
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(Editor’s Note: this post originally appeared on carbonblack.com in June 2013. We are republishing here to further demonstrate Carbon Black’s toolset for readers who have asked to see Carbon Black in action.)

I always caution my family to be very careful downloading freeware applications from such collections as download.com and tucows.com. My justification is a hand-waving, fear-mongering response: “you never know what extra things are hidden inside.”

I want to give more of a detailed answer than that, but it has always taken too much time. Carbon Black changes that.

Many freeware and shareware authors make money from Pay-Per-Install schemes. It’s a murky, grey area between legitimate advertising and malicious behavior. Dell, HP and other PC OEMs make money from the extra applications they install, somewhat legitimizing the practice. Your home Internet service provider probably hijacks failed DNS lookups to increase ad impressions on their “helpful” pages....

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1.Fixing wired network interface 'Device not managed' error

To allow Network Manager to handle interfaces that are enabled in /etc/network/interfaces:



2.Fixing default repository

Comment/remove existing configuration as follows:

## Regular repositories
deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
## Source repositories
deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb-src http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free

3.Clean, update, upgrade and dist-upgrade your Kali installation

apt-get clean && apt-get update && apt-get upgrade -y && apt-get dist-upgrade -y

4.Enabling sound on Boot

Here's how you can do this:

apt-get install alsa-utils -y

Applications > System Tools > Preferences >...

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Some readers contacted me about the possibility to write an article about things to do after a fresh installation of

Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin

. In fact, there are many things to do after a new installation of Ubuntu 12.04, but in this guide I will try to give you what is important. If you think we have missed something interesting for Ubuntu 12.04, please mention it in the comment form given below.

1. Updating Your Repositories

The first thing to do is to configure Ubuntu to download packages from main Ubuntu servers instead of location-based servers to avoid the notorious 404 error when installing packages from the terminal using the "apt-get install" command. To do this, start the terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run this command:

sudo software-properties-gtk

Make sure all options under "

Downloadable from the internet

" are checked on, then select

Download from: Main server


In the same window, open the "

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What version of electron-installer-debian are you using?

What version of node and npm are you using?
node 6.9.1
npm 3.10.8

What operating system are you using?
ubuntu 16.04

Can you compile the example app successfully?

If not, paste here the output of the following commands:

Compilation is successfull, but I can't start it:


$ git clone https://github.com/unindented/electron-installer-debian.git $ cd electron-installer-debian/example $ DEBUG='electron-installer-debian' npm run build

What did you do? Please include the configuration you are using for electron-installer-debian.
I'm using ember-electron, which uses electron electron-forge, which uses electron-installer-debian.
I have built my project for Linux and tried to install it.

What did you expect to happen?

I expected the app to be installed and me being able to run it

What actually happened?


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For years, I've been dreaming about learning Ruby and the Rails framework. (Most of my development career has left me too busy to devote time to picking up a new language properly, but I'm making more time now.) I like the notion of being able to work with Ruby to develop quickly, but I'm having trouble understanding the Ruby installation process.

Each time I've encountered it, the Ruby installation process varies slightly. The two laptops I've used over the past several years have usually been running a then-recently released version of OS X, and all seem to ship with Ruby 1.8.7. Any modern version of Rails requires Ruby 1.9.x. So, I search the web and invariable bump into a post like this:

Use this awesome tool called rvm to manage multiple Ruby installs on the same machine.

or this:

rbenv is fantastic, and lightweight compared to rvm, use it instead.

Really? What is the Ruby install process doing, and why is it so complicated? By now...

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The alpha linux client works by wrapping the Windows client in a WINE compatibility layer. We’ve had surprisingly good results with the built-in winex11 software decoder. This client works a lot better than the linux native client we have in the pipes. So until we can give the native client the attention it needs, enjoy this WINE port. Expect updates on the repositiory soon.

The following are instructions for installing our debian repository which will work on the following Linux distributions: Mint, Ubuntu, Debian

# 1. Get the LiquidSky GPG signing keys for secure downloading sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 641414A44E5F5193CA29ADC2EB69DB13917C600E # 2. Add the LiquidSky repository to your sources echo deb https://liquidsky.tv/linux experimental non-free | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/liquidsky.list # 3. Update the package list sudo apt-get update # 4. Install the LiquidSky client sudo apt-get install liquidsky-client

Also we...

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To install msgpack for gcc:

1. Go to Ubuntu Software Center and install libmsgpack required for your application

2. In terminal using the command su, access the root [it will ask for password and if success, the symbol will change from $ to #]

name@ubuntu:~$ su



3. Now type the following command,

root@ubuntu:/home/name# sudo apt-get install libmsgpack*

Here, libmsgpack* will install all msgpack libraries, you can install specific one if you give the exact name.

This will successfully install msgpack for gcc in Ubuntu.

Suppose, if it shows that libmsgpack already exists, use the command:

sudo apt-get update

[I have successfully installed it 2 years back itself and using it continuously, and now in Ubuntu...

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All source code included in the card Debian/Ubuntu: See what "apt" would install without actually doing it is licensed under the license stated below. This includes both code snippets embedded in the card text and code that is included as a file attachment. Excepted from this license are code snippets that are explicitely marked as citations from another source.

The MIT License (MIT) Copyright (c) 2011-2015 makandra GmbH Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE...
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There are common applications to install when you finished Ubuntu installation. Also, there are some common configurations you should do. I will give you a list of what applications and configurations with short explanations why you need them. I write this article based on my experiences in Indonesia Linux forums especially what people asks the most. This list is not a mandatory but people will need it for further Ubuntu usage. I write this article for beginners especially those who come from Windows.


A. Enable All Your Ubuntu Repositories

What to do

: Open menu > look for

Software & Updates

> check all options except

Source code

option > choose your country server at

Download from

option > press Close button > press


button > let Ubuntu download all your repositories indexes > dialog windows will close after the download process completed. You need internet connection to do this.



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root@lucy:~# apt-get install freeradius

Reading package lists... Done

Building dependency tree

Reading state information... Done

The following extra packages will be installed:

freeradius-common freeradius-utils libfreeradius2

Suggested packages:

freeradius-ldap freeradius-mysql freeradius-krb5 freeradius-postgresql

The following NEW packages will be installed:

freeradius freeradius-common freeradius-utils libfreeradius2

0 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Need to get 1529kB of archives.

After this operation, 4502kB of additional disk space will be used.

Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y




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I just installed some software using apt-get, and its owner and group is "logger". Since I installed the software using sudo, why isn't the owner and group "root"? I am pretty sure about a year ago, I renamed user pi with the new name logger. Could this have caused it, and if so, why?

michael@rp3:~ $ ls -l /usr | grep local

drwxrwsr-x 12 root staff 4096 Dec 23 16:49 local

michael@rp3:~ $ ls -l /usr/local

total 32

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Dec 23 16:47 bin

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Apr 10 2017 etc

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Apr 10 2017 games

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Apr 10 2017 include

drwxrwsr-x 4 root staff 4096 Jun 4 2017 lib

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root staff 9 Apr 10 2017 man -> share/man

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Apr 10 2017 sbin

drwxrwsr-x 7 root staff 4096 Dec 23 15:20 share

drwxrwsr-x 2 root staff 4096 Apr 10 2017 src

michael@rp3:~ $ sudo apt-get install...

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In short: apt-get install does everything that is needed that your system can successfully execute the new installed software application.



From the manpage:

All packages required by the package(s) specified for installation will also be retrieved and installed.

Those packages are stored on a repository in the network. So, apt-get downloads all the needed ones into a temporary directory (/var/cache/apt/archives/). They will be downloaded from a web- or a ftp-server. They are specified in the so called sources.list; a list of repositories. From then on they get installed one by one procedurally.

The first ones are the ones, that have no further dependencies; so no other package has to be installed for them. Through that, other packages (that had dependencies previously) have now no dependencies anymore. The system keeps doing that process over and over until the specified packages are installed.

Each package...

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The apt or Advanced Packaging Tool is a package manager for Debian based Operating Systems like Ubuntu, Linux Mint etc.

The apt keeps a list of packages that it can install in its cache (or repository). This cache has information on where the software is (ie the URL) located, what all additional software is required to run that software and the version it can install on the current system.

So when you say "sudo apt-get install ", it checks its repository for the packages name. If the package is available in the list, it then proceeds to locate, download and install the software and all the required dependencies.

Distros come with some default software repositories already set up, but we can add custom repositories and download softwares from them as well using the command
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:

And then updating the apt cache using
sudo apt-get update

This command rechecks all the repositories in the cache and updates the software...

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By default, each TurnKey appliance is carefully built from the ground up with the minimum components needed to serve its role with maximum efficiency and security.

Users that need software that isn't installed by default can easily install it through APT, the Advanced Packaging Tool, which can be accessed through the web interface (Webmin) or through the command line interface (recommended).

Remember, a TurnKey Linux appliance is Debian under the hood. TurnKey Linux just gives you a better starting point, so it's ok to customize an appliance to fit your needs. You can use Debian documentation to help.

Before you start

Make you sure your appliance has Internet access. It needs to be able to access APT's online package repositories.

Installing packages via the command line

Log into the command line. You can do that via an SSH client, or from your browser using the AJAX web shell: https://appliance.ip:12320/

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APT (the Advanced Packaging Tool) is an evolution of the Debian .deb software packaging system. It is a rapid, practical, and efficient way to install packages on your system. Dependencies are managed automatically, configuration files are maintained, and upgrades and downgrades are handled carefully to ensure system stability.


resynchronizes the local index of packages files, updating information about new and updated packages that are available. The indexes are fetched from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list.

An update should always be performed before an upgrade or dist-upgrade.


installs the newest versions of all packages currently installed on the system, using the sources in /etc/apt/sources.list. If a package is currently installed and a new version is available, it is retrieved and upgraded. Under no circumstances are installed packages removed, or packages not already installed retrieved. New versions of...

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The most obvious difference is that aptitude provides a terminal menu interface (much like Synaptic in a terminal), whereas apt-get does not.

Considering only the command-line interfaces of each, they are quite similar, and for the most part, it really doesn't matter which one you use. Recent versions of both will track which packages were manually installed, and which were installed as dependencies (and therefore eligible for automatic removal). In fact, I believe that even more recently, the two tools were updated to actually share the same database of manually vs automatically installed packages, so cases where you install something with apt-get and then aptitude wants to uninstall it are mostly a thing of the past.

There are a few minor differences:

aptitude will automatically remove eligible packages, whereas apt-get requires a separate command to do so The commands for upgrade vs. dist-upgrade have been renamed in aptitude to the probably more accurate names...
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This article explains how quickly you can learn to install, remove, update and search software packages using apt-get and apt-cache commands from the command line. This article provides some useful commands that will help you to handle package management in Debian/Ubuntu based systems.

APT-GET and APT-CACHE Commands

What is apt-get?

The apt-get utility is a powerful and free package management command line program, that is used to work with Ubuntu’s APT (Advanced Packaging Tool) library to perform installation of new software packages, removing existing software packages, upgrading of existing software packages and even used to upgrading the entire operating system.

What is apt-cache?

The apt-cache command line tool is used for searching apt software package cache. In simple words, this tool is used to search software packages, collects information of packages and also used to search for what available packages are ready for installation on Debian or Ubuntu based...

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When you use apt to install a package, internally it uses dpkg. When you install a package using apt, it first creates a list of all the dependencies and downloads it from the repository.

Once the download is finished it calls dpkg to install all those files, satisfying all the dependencies.

So if you have a .deb file:

You can install it using sudo dpkg -i /path/to/deb/file followed by sudo apt-get install -f.

You can install it using sudo apt install ./name.deb (or /path/to/package/name.deb).
With old apt-get versions you must first move your deb file to /var/cache/apt/archives/ directory. For both, after executing this command, it will automatically download its dependencies.

Install gdebi and open your .deb file using it (Right-click -> Open with). It will install your .deb package with all its dependencies.

(Note: APT maintains the package index which is a database of available packages available in repo defined in...

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This article applies to all supported versions of Ubuntu

Package management via apt-get runs hand-in-hand with the /etc/apt/sources.list file. For information on editing or updating your sources list see SourcesList.


This page describes how to handle the packages on your system using apt-get and related commands. For example, you can install a new package, remove an installed package, or update all installed packages to the latest versions.


Installation commands

apt-get install This command installs a new package.apt-get build-dep

This command searches the repositories and installs the build dependencies for . If the package is not in the repositories it will return an error.

aptitude install

Aptitude is an Ncurses viewer of packages installed or available. Aptitude can be used from the command line in a similar way to apt-get. Enter man aptitude for more information.

APT and aptitude will accept...
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Brief: This beginner’s guide shows you what you can do with apt-get commands in Linux, how to use it to find new packages, install and upgrade new packages and clean your system.

If you have started using Ubuntu or any other Ubuntu based Linux distribution such as Linux Mint, elementary OS etc, you must have come across apt-get command by now.

In fact, first in the list of things to do after installing Ubuntu is to use apt-get update and apt-get upgrade. Now, you might be aware of a few commands and their usage but perhaps you might not be aware of other apt-get commands and their usage.

In this guide for beginners, I am going to explain various of apt-get commands with examples so that you can use them as an expert Linux user.

What is apt-get?

Ubuntu is derived from Debian Linux. And Debian uses dpkg packaging system. A packaging system is a way to provide programs and applications for installation. This way, you don’t have to build a program...

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