What do the STAT column values in ps mean?


man ps has all the answers, under the "PROCESS STATE CODES" heading:

PROCESS STATE CODES Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a process: D uninterruptible sleep (usually IO) R running or runnable (on run queue) S interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete) T stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced. W paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel) X dead (should never be seen) Z defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its parent. For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may be displayed: < high-priority (not nice to other users) N low-priority (nice to other users) L has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO) s is a session leader l is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do) + is in the foreground process...
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When I execute this command under MacOS/X:

ps -M 9358

I get this output:

USER PID TT %CPU STAT PRI STIME UTIME COMMAND jaf 9358 s009 0.0 S 31T 0:00.21 0:00.32 /Users/jaf/some-program 9358 0.0 S 33T 0:00.00 0:00.00 9358 23.6 R 63R 0:01.13 1:18.74 9358 24.1 R 63R 0:02.86 1:20.32 9358 5.8 S 63R 0:00.91 0:21.53 9358 15.7 S 63R 0:00.56 1:02.22 9358 0.0 S 31T 0:00.00 0:00.00 9358 0.0 S 31T 0:00.09 0:00.11

My questions is about the values in the PRI column. I understand that they are thread priorities (and that larger numbers mean higher-priority threads, I think), but what do the "T" and "R" suffixes indicate? (I couldn't find any explanation of this in the "man ps"...

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@msw did a good job explaining your 2nd Q, and some of your 1st:

B) Suggest any relatively-easy ways to regain any form of control, to (at the very least) save the tabs I had annoyingly opened in Private Browsing mode?

So I'll try and address your 1st Q a bit more:

A) Elaborate as to what the state is, in more detail?

The state values Sl (That's a lowercase L):

S Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete) l is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)

PROCESS STATE CODES R running or runnable (on run queue) D uninterruptible sleep (usually IO) S interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete) Z defunct/zombie, terminated but not reaped by its parent T stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced [...]

Further details can be seen in the signal man page, man 7 signal, as well as in this tutorial, titled: Linux process...

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The subscript $i$ refers to this being the $i$-th $x$ or the $i$-th $y$ out of $n$. In your table it's basically row number. The third column is the difference between actual $y$ value for the $i$-th data point and the predicted $y$ value (by line of best fit) using the $i$-th $x$ value. This is typical use of the subscript $i$.

Take the first row for an example, also just assume that the first two columns said $x_i$ and $y_i$ because that's what's meant and maybe what it should have said from the beginning. So $i = 1$. We have $x_1 = 1, y_1 = 3.6$. The $y(x_i)$ is $y$ as a function of $x_i$, that is $0.564x_i + 2.14$, the line of best fit. If it were up to me I'd have called it $\hat y_i$ instead. So then $$ y_i - y(x_i) = y_1 - y(x_1) = 3.6 - (0.564\cdot 1 + 2.14) = 0.896 $$ This is the error of your model. The last column is simply the square of the error.

An important question to this that I myself have: why does the text give two different lines as the line of...

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What are the various states which the eHealth Oracle database can be in and what do the state values of the NH_CONVERT_STATE table represent?


DuConvertInitialized = 0 After a successful convert, the state should be this
DuOnlinePreConvertStarted, =1
DuOnlinePreConvertFinished, = 2
DuSavePriorVersionStarted = 3 Backing up the existing database configuration tables
DuSavePriorVersionFinished = 4
DuOfflineConvertStarted = 5 When a doConvert operation fails, it typically leaves the database in this state
DuOfflineConvertFinished = 6
DuSwitchBackStarted = 7
DuSwitchBackFinished = 8 After successfully running undoConvert, the state will be this
DuCleanUpStarted = 9


The NH_CONVERT_STATE table is used during upgrade...

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I am trying to get the fetch_status for each cursor in a nested loop. I am unable to use


here because of the nested loops (loop within another loop)

My first approach is to use


to determine the status of each cursor by a name. Then if the fetch_status is not equal to 0 I would break the loop.

According to the doc the fetch_status should return one of the following values 0, -1, -2

However, the fetch_status in my case is returning


. What does -9 means?

Here is how I try to get the status of the cursor based on the name

SET @fetchStatus = (SELECT TOP 1 [fetch_status] FROM sys.dm_exec_cursors (@@SPID | 0 ) WHERE name = 'pageCursor');

Here is a short version of my stored procedure


ALTER PROCEDURE [dbo].[CloneSurvey] @sourceSurveyId INT, @newSurveyName VARCHAR(255)


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a kind of pillar; a cylindrical or polygonal support for a roof, ceiling, statue, etc., somewhat ornamented, and usually composed of base, shaft, and capital. See Order


anything resembling, in form or position, a column in architecture; an upright body or mass; a shaft or obelisk; as, a column of air, of water, of mercury, etc.; the Column Vendome; the spinal column


a body of troops formed in ranks, one behind the other; -- contradistinguished from line. Compare Ploy, and Deploy


a small army


a number of ships so arranged as to follow one another in single or double file or in squadrons; -- in distinction from "line", where they are side by side


a perpendicular set of lines, not extending across the page, and separated from other matter by a rule or blank space; as, a column in a newspaper



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In the context of relational databases, a column is a set of data values, all of a single type, in a table. Columns define the data in a table, while rows populate data into the table.

Most databases also allow columns to contain complex data like images, whole documents, or even video clips. So, a column allowing data values of a single type does not necessarily mean it only has simple text values like. Some databases go even further and allow the data to be stored as a file on the Operating System, while the column data only contains a pointer or link to the actual file. This is done for the purposes of keeping the overall database size manageable -- a smaller database size means less time taken for backups and less time to search for data within the...

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ps command

In modern Unixes ps is implemented using /proc pseudo filesystem. That means it reads data from it and does not requires additional privileges. See also top command which is a simple monitoring tool for running process similar to ps but able to work in interactive mode.

In most Posix compatible Unixes ps commonly is used with the options -ef, where "-e" selects every process and "-f" chooses the "full" output format:

-e print all processes. Shows the command environment for each process. This is useful in a situation where a program works for one user but not for another, or on one machine but not on another.
-f print full listing. Shows children descended from their parents in an ASCII art tree. I find this very useful when looking at problem processes. Use with the S option to see CPU information from children summed up with parents.

The ps command by default truncates output at 80 column. To avoid this problem and full invocation...

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Designing the Sub-Array Formula

Then we need to design the formula that will pull the rows of the table that meet our criteria. This formula will be broken down into its individual functions so we can walk through each part in turn. The sub-array formula is built with the following functions:


The IFERROR function is just a security measure. It tries to run the formula inside it, and if any errors occur, it lets us control what happens instead of just outputting an error message. To learn more about how Excel handles errors, check out the Definitive Guide to Excel Error Types and Error Handling. The syntax for IFERROR is simple:

=IFERROR(value, value_if_error)

The rest of our sub-array formula will go inside the value field of the IFERROR function.

The INDEX function is responsible for pulling the information from the rows of data in our original table that meet our criteria. The way it knows which rows to show is based on...

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These are some examples of using the perf Linux profiler, which has also been called Performance Counters for Linux (PCL), Linux perf events (LPE), or perf_events. Like Vince Weaver, I'll call it perf_events so that you can search on that term later. Searching for just "perf" finds sites on the police, petroleum, weed control, and a T-shirt. This is not an official perf page, for either perf_events or the T-shirt.

perf_events is an event-oriented observability tool, which can help you solve advanced performance and troubleshooting functions. Questions that can be answered include:

Why is the kernel on-CPU so much? What code-paths? Which code-paths are causing CPU level 2 cache misses? Are the CPUs stalled on memory I/O? Which code-paths are allocating memory, and how much? What is triggering TCP retransmits? Is a certain kernel function being called, and how often? What reasons are threads leaving the CPU?

perf_events is part of the Linux kernel, under tools/perf....

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In this post I am going to talk about how ORACLE allocates and uses memory when running on AIX, but I will also talk about the power of approximation and how it can sometimes be misused for ill...

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April 10, 2017

UNLESS YOU’VE BEEN living in a hole over the past couple of weeks, you’ve seen or heard (and maybe, like me, grown very tired of) the story about the passenger being forcibly removed from an overbooked United Express regional jet in Chicago. The accompanying video is a little disturbing to watch.

This might sound like it’s coming from left field, but what I’m sensing here — what lies at the root of this unfortunate episode — was a lack of empowerment. There is no reason that an overbooked flight should result in the forced, physical removal of a passenger by law enforcement. There had to be a better solution. Yet nobody came up with one. Why?

Not all flights are routinely overbooked, and for those that are, it’s done in accordance with tracked data that predicts how many people with reservations are actually going to show up. Once in a while, for any number of reasons, those predictions are off, and there are more passengers than seats....

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