How to restore a system after accidentally removing all kernels?


I was trying to delete old kernels, but I must have deleted all of the kernels on my Ubuntu 11.04 laptop. Is there any way to fix this via USB boot or mounting hard drive on another system?

Boot into a live CD (or live USB), mount some systems, chroot into it and install the kernel. After a successful installation of the kernel, unmount the filesystems.

Open Terminal Mount the Ubuntu partition: sudo mount /dev/sdXY /mnt

Mount some special partitions:

sudo mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev sudo mount --bind /proc /mnt/proc sudo mount --bind /sys /mnt/sys

(optional) When you are connected to a network, use the DNS servers from your Live environment (otherwise host names can possibly not be resolved):

cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/resolv.conf Chroot into the /mnt: sudo chroot /mnt Install the Linux kernel: apt-get install linux-image-generic (no sudo required as you are root after a chroot)

After a successful installation of the kernel, get out the chroot and...

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Have you accidentally deleted all your Linux kernels and don't know what to do to fix your system? In this guide, we will help you repair your operating system using the instructions given below. You can use these instructions in the following Linux distributions:

Ubuntu 12.10/12.04/11.10 or older Linux Mint 13/12 or older RequirementsInternet Connection Ubuntu/Linux Mint Live CD/DVD/USB Getting Started

Insert your Live CD/DVD or USB and boot into it. In the welcome screen of Ubuntu, select "Try Ubuntu without installing":

For Linux Mint, select "

Start Linux Mint


Wait now until your desktop loads completely, then start the terminal and run this command to check your hard disks:

sudo fdisk -l

For my system, the Ubuntu/Linux Mint partition is mounted as



Run now these sequence of commands to get root privileges on your hard disk:

sudo mkdir -p /media/ubuntu sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/ubuntu ...
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You can perform system restore when there is something wrong with the operating system on your computer. System restore offers an effective solution for corrupted Windows OS fixing without reinstalling system. Simply say, when you perform system restore on your computer, it will restore the PC to the previous system backup or the mode when you created the system restore point. After system restore, all the current data on the system partition will be replaced by the backup data. In other words, the new added data to the system partition after creating restore point will get lost after system restore. Then, how can you recover lost files after system restore? In this situation, you can use data recovery software to restore all lost files after system restore.

Why Data Got Lost after System Restore?

If you want to know the reason why files got lost due to system restore, you need to know how system restore works on your PC. System restore is a method to restore...

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If your power goes out, or you accidentally forget to save your work before you exit Microsoft Word, chances are you feel a sense of panic, especially if the document is important. You may think that the file is gone, and you have to start over, hoping you can come up with something just as good as your first draft. However, you may still be able to find the work that you lost by searching specific areas of your computer.

If you forget to save your work, all is not necessarily lost.

Open Microsoft Word to determine if the program auto-recovered your document. If your software is set to auto-save your document every couple of minutes, when the program is restarted, any document that was not saved prior to closing, may appear in the auto-recover window on the left side of the screen. Click on your document, and the last-saved file will open. However, anything you typed after the last auto-save is gone, but at least you haven't lost the entire document.

Search the...

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Set the following preferences (Preferences > File Handling & Clipboard > Data Recovery area):

Automatically Save Recovery Data Every. Select the checkbox to turn on data recovery. Interval. Select an appropriate duration from the Interval drop-down. Illustrator saves a backup of your work at this frequency in minutes.

Tip: Setting a time interval that's too short may interrupt your flow as you work, especially if you're working on extremely large or complex files. Setting a time interval that's too long may increase the potential for data loss in the event of a crash. Use your discretion to set a value that works best for you.

Folder / Choose. Choose the location at which Illustrator stores the backup files. Turn off Data Recovery for complex documents. When data recovery is turned on, Illustrator may pause while backing up large or complex files. If this slows down or interrupts your workflow, select the checkbox to turn off data recovery.

If Illustrator crashes...

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When you lose a network driver, or have a bad kernel for some reason, this will get you going.

You are starting a working system, then setting up the essentials to chroot into your broken system. The kernel, drivers and things you need are borrowed from the working system. Then you can reinstall packages, until it's working again.

First boot from a Live Ubuntu DVD/USB. Select Try without installing. Open a terminal, and follow the instructions in the Link. Your mileage may vary, I'll try an example with sda1 boot, and sda2 root filesystem.

# Mount the root filesystem to /mnt
mount /dev/sda2 /mnt
# Check /mnt for a root filesystem (bin var etc ...)
ls /mnt
# Mount the boot partition to /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
# Check /mnt/boot for kernels, if not, figure out where they are.
ls /mnt/boot
# Mount the...

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