How do I re-run boot loader?

Guido B wrote:

Last night I have tried to format my laptop (i5; hdd 1Tb; 4Gb Ram; OS debian 7) to install Mint 17 XFCE

I wanted:
/ 50Gb
Swap 4Gb
/home 950Gb

But when I partitioned

The installer shown me:
/ 49.999mb
Free space 1mb
swap 4.000mb
Free space 0
/home 940.000mb
Free space 0

I'm assuming you meant to type "GB" where I highlighted in red above -- correct? (MB is too small -- change to GB if not a typo.)

Guido B wrote:Also when I have continued, a window appeared saying:
"The partition table format in use on your disks normally requires you to create a separate partition for boot loader code. This partition should be marked for use as a "reserved BIOS boot area"

I'm pretty sure that would be caused if the disk is using GPT partitions in a Legacy mode installation.

Are you trying to install Mint as a dual-boot with another OS? Or just by itself on the computer?

Is there...

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Computer Type PC/Desktop
System Manufacturer/Model Number Dell Inspiron 7537 Laptop & Home Built PC
OS Windows 10 Home x64 (Laptop), Windows 10 Pro x64 (Desktop)
CPU i5-3570K (Desktop) & i7-4500U (Laptop)
Motherboard Gigabyte GA-Z77X-UD5H (Desktop), Dell (Laptop)
Memory 16GB (Desktop), 8GB (Laptop)
Graphics Card Sapphire Toxic R9 280X (Desktop), Intel / Geforce GT750M (Laptop)
Sound Card Realtek HD
Monitor(s) Displays Viewsonic VP2770 (Desktop)
Screen Resolution 2560x1440 (Desktop), 1920x1080 (Laptop)

Keyboard Microsoft Digital Media Pro
Mouse Microsoft Wireless
PSU EVGA SuperNova G2 850W (Desktop)
Case Nanoxia Deep Silence 1
Cooling Noctua NH-D14 (Desktop)
Hard Drives Desktop: 180GB Intel 820 SSD, 2T Seagate HDD, 500GB Maxtor HDD, 2T Seagate Expansion external HDD Laptop: 500GB Samsung Evo 850 SSD
Internet Speed 70Mbps
Browser Chrome, IE & Edge
Antivirus Kaspersky...

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You might be able to rig something with kexec.

Yes, kexec is intended to boot kernels, but nothing's stopping you from kexec'ing to any binary (a "statically linked" binary that doesn't depend on libraries or an existing running OS and is meant to run under preboot conditions) you want, whether a bootloader or even memtest86 - that page talks about some of the traps you may fall into. E.g., if it's a text mode bootloader, you should switch back to text mode before issuing kexec.

If you're using Debian the kexec-tools or whatever pretty much performs all the normal shutdown steps, including switching back to text mode, before issuing the kexec command.

What kexec won't do is boot a disk or disk image, but you could extract the bootloader from the CD and pass it to kexec. If the boot CD is in the drive I don't see why it wouldn't work but I haven't tried it.

Unpacking an .iso in RAM and getting the .iso's bootloader to run from it without the bootloader...

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Are you hungry right now?


Then this analogy will make sense because I’m going to reference my favorite sandwich of all time: A Prosciutto, Soppressata, Italian hero with Banana peppers, fresh mozzarella and oregano.

Think of EFI like the palatable center of my Italian sandwich. Your system board is the bottom part of the roll and the OS, Windows 8, is the top half.

EFI, short for Extensible Firmware Interface, forms a delicious layer of protection against pernicious badware (Rootkits anyone?) by requiring valid digital signatures from the bootloader. It also replaces the antiquated Master Boot Record (MBR) with the modern GUID Partition Table (GPT) so your computer can stop ignoring hard disks larger than 2TB.

The bootloader is the program that “kicks off the show”.

After the PC finishes a sequence of hardware health checks known as a Power On Self Test (POST), the bootloader enters the scene and galvanizes the OS.

But what...

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The error is a bit odd in case of grub.

When apt installs a new kernel-version, it moves /vmlinuz and /initrd.img to /vmlinuz.old and /initrd.img.old (Which then are still pointing to the currently active kernel. Again, notice the .old extension, which is different from the story linked in "Damaged links after kernel uninstall") and creates two new files /vmlinuz /initrd.img.

When you run apt-get autoremove (the messages weren't generated by apt-get -f install) it removes that previously active kernel (you rebooted after that install, before running autoremove, right?), which makes the links invalid.

When the removal of the kernel itself done, the autoremove itself invokes update-grub:

run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub 3.13.0-32-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.13.0-32-generic


The link /vmlinuz.old is a damaged link Removing symbolic link vmlinuz.old you may need to re-run your boot loader[grub]

So, autoremove does:

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There are two ways of doing this using editing a grub file. These are described in the Ubuntu Community Documentation Grub2 page

The two ways are:

Boot which ever operating system you booted last time, the "saved method" This is the one I use. It lets me decide which one I going to use and will allow me to reboot into that system, handy when I'm updating. Boot a specific operating system by default. The answer to your exact question.

Finding the menuentry to set as the new default

To start we need to find out what we are booting or want to boot. Open a terminal with Ctrl+Alt+t and type in

grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg

user@YourComputer:~$ grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.35-31-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os { menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.35-31-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os { menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux...
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The rEFInd Boot Manager: Installing rEFInd

by Roderick W. Smith,

Originally written: 3/14/2012; last Web page update: 4/24/2016, referencing rEFInd 0.10.3

This Web page is provided free of charge and with no annoying outside ads; however, I did take time to prepare it, and Web hosting does cost money. If you find this Web page useful, please consider making a small donation to help keep this site up and running. Thanks!

This page is part of the documentation for the rEFInd boot manager. If a Web search has brought you here, you may want to start at the main page.

Don't be scared by the length of this page! Only portions of this page apply to any given user, and most people can install rEFInd from an RPM or Debian package in a matter of seconds or by using the refind-install script in minute or two.

Once you've obtained a rEFInd binary file, as described on the preceding page, you must install it to your computer's EFI System...

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Booting from GPT

Last Web page update: 11/12/2012, referencing GPT fdisk version 0.8.5

I'm a technical writer and consultant specializing in Linux technologies. This Web page, and the associated software, is provided free of charge and with no annoying outside ads; however, I did take time to prepare it, and Web hosting does cost money. If you find GPT fdisk or this Web page useful, please consider making a small donation to help keep this site up and running. Thanks!

Note: This page is part of the documentation for my GPT fdisk program.

One of the challenges of GPT is that of booting from it. In late 2012, support for booting from GPT is limited compared to support for booting from MBR, although this is changing rapidly with the adoption of UEFI. This support varies by OS, as well. Following are my notes and general observations on this issue. Keep in mind, though, that these details are likely to change rapidly.

The rest of this page is broken down...

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3.4.1. The theory

You have setup everything, rebooted your box, and suddenly you want to change something to the kernel boot arguments, or even boot another kernel. Damn it! How could you, now that the box is booting? Well, stay calm and relax, have a deep breath, we have the solution! Unfortunately, by the time you'll learn about it, your box will have finished booting ;o)

First, you must learn how to interact with PALO during the startup sequence. You have to enter BOOT_ADMIN, as explained in Section 2.1.1. For some old models (up to 712 or so), you must add the ipl (or isl) string to your boot command in the BOOT_ADMIN console:

On most PA-RISC boxes, the system will ask you if you want to interact with


anyway. You just have to answer "


" and hit


. You will then end up to


configuration display, with the list of all parameters and their corresponding...

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This lab is going to give you a hands on tutorial of how to reduce the boot time of a Linux system. There are many techniques to reduce Linux boot time and not all of them will be covered in this lab so please refer to the presentation for more ideas.


Provide the user with a simple display on the LCD and await touchscreen input Provide the above in 3 seconds

If you have questions or feedback please e-mail the mailing list.

NOTE: In this guide commands to be executed for each step will be marked in BOLD

The following are the hardware and software configurations for this lab. The steps in this lab are written against this configuration. The concepts of the lab will apply to other configurations but will need to be adapted accordingly.


beaglebone ( 7" LCD cape ( 5V power...
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There are a lot of posts in this blog that describe the state of U-Boot for our i.MX6 boards, but most of them describe the history. They were designed to help the early adopters make transitions as we switched from the Freescale U-Boot 2009.08 to main-line and added display support.

Things have stabilized, and in this post, we’ll recap the current state of affairs to provide the new user a quick Getting started guide.

Here are some things you should know about the U-Boot that we ship with our i.MX6 boards:

Our boards boot to a serial EEPROM. The i.MX6 processor has a set of internal fuses that control the boot device, and we program these for SPI-NOR. There are a variety of ways to over-ride this, but we don’t recommend them except for very specific needs. The primary U-Boot console is the serial port on a DB-9 labelled console. It’s configured for direct connection to common USB serial adapters (i.e. as DCE). The baud rate is 115200. 8 data...
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Press the power button on your system, and after few moments you see the Linux login prompt.

Have you ever wondered what happens behind the scenes from the time you press the power button until the Linux login prompt appears?

The following are the 6 high level stages of a typical Linux boot process.


BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System Performs some system integrity checks Searches, loads, and executes the boot loader program. It looks for boot loader in floppy, cd-rom, or hard drive. You can press a key (typically F12 of F2, but it depends on your system) during the BIOS startup to change the boot sequence. Once the boot loader program is detected and loaded into the memory, BIOS gives the control to it. So, in simple terms BIOS loads and executes the MBR boot loader.

2. MBR

MBR stands for Master Boot Record. It is located in the 1st sector of the bootable disk. Typically /dev/hda, or /dev/sda MBR is less than 512...
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PS C:\Windows\system32>

BCDEdit Commands

BCDEdit /enum all /v

Part of the output from the above command.

Windows Boot Manager
Identifier: {224b0148-a08e-11da-b308-ed83a3b7e795}
Type: 10100002
Device: partition=C:
Path: \EFI\Microsoft\Boot\bootmgfw.efi
Description: Windows Boot Manager
Locale: en-US
Inherit options: {7ea2e1ac-2e61-4728-aaa3-896d9d0a9f0e}
Boot debugger: No
Default: {6159a569-e084-11e0-bbe4-8235eea3d58f}
Timeout: 30

Amongst the entries for Windows Boot Manager is:

Default: ...

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