How can I see all versions of a package that are available in the archive?


Answer #: 1

Use the command:

apt-cache policy

This gives you information of all available package versions.


alaa@aa-lu:~$ apt-cache policy vlc vlc: Installed: 2.0.8-0ubuntu0.13.04.1 Candidate: 2.0.8-0ubuntu0.13.04.1 Version table: *** 2.0.8-0ubuntu0.13.04.1 0 500 raring-updates/universe i386 Packages 500 raring-security/universe i386 Packages 100 /var/lib/dpkg/status 2.0.6-1 0 500 raring/universe i386 Packages

From the output, you can see that there are two versions available: 2.0.8-0ubuntu0.13.04.1 and 2.0.6-1. It also tells you which repositories they are coming from.

Installed: tells you the version you have installed. If you don’t have the package installed, you’ll see (none).

Candidate: is the version that will be installed if you use apt-get install vlc. If you want to...

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The pacman package manager is one of the major distinguishing features of Arch Linux. It combines a simple binary package format with an easy-to-use build system. The goal of pacman is to make it possible to easily manage packages, whether they are from the official repositories or the user's own builds.

pacman keeps the system up to date by synchronizing package lists with the master server. This server/client model also allows the user to download/install packages with a simple command, complete with all required dependencies.

pacman is written in the C programming language and uses the .pkg.tar.xz package format.



package contains other useful tools such as






, and


. Run

pacman -Qlq pacman | grep bin

to see the full list.


This article or section needs expansion.


pacman 5.0 added some new operations:





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What is VyOS?

VyOS is a routing/firewall/VPN platform , forked from Vyatta, based on Debian GNU/Linux that runs on x86 and ARM hardware and many virtual machine hypervisors.

Should I try it?

It depends. If you are a network engineer/administrator or want to become one, you should. VyOS is more like IOS, JunOS and other enterprise platforms, not like SOHO appliances (D-Link, Linksys etc.). You need to understand what you are doing to configure it.

What version should I install?

The latest one. Newer versions are always better than older.

How often are new versions released?

The first official version was released on December 22nd 2013. We ask your involvement by testing our nightly builds and report any problems you experience.

What functions does VyOS lack?

There are some. For instance it lacks

MPLS, PBR (can be done with a trick), WebVPN, PPTP and L2TP clients, IPv6 flow accounting.

Most of the...

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There are literally thousands of Ubuntu programs available to meet the needs of Ubuntu users. Many of these programs are stored in software archives commonly referred to as repositories. Repositories make it easy to install new software, while also providing a high level of security, since the software is thoroughly tested and built specifically for each version of Ubuntu.

Ubuntu distinguishes between software that is "free" and software that is not free. For details of Ubuntu's Free Software Philosophy please see here.

The four main repositories are:

Main - Canonical-supported free and open-source software.

Universe - Community-maintained free and open-source software.

Restricted - Proprietary drivers for devices.

Multiverse - Software restricted by copyright or legal issues.

The Ubuntu Install CDs contain software from the "Main" and "Restricted" repositories, so if you have no internet connection you can still install...

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See also Troubleshooting

You will need to have a local copy of the appropriate Anaconda installer for the non-networked machine. You can copy the Anaconda installer to the target machine using many different methods including (but not limited to) a portable hard drive, USB drive, or a CD. After you’ve copied the installer to the non-networked machine, simply follow the Anaconda installation instructions.

You can directly install a conda package from your local machine by running the following command, and replacing “package-path” and “package-filename.tar.bz2” with your actual path and filename:

conda install /package-path/package-filename.tar.bz2

Packages installed by conda are found in the anaconda/pkgs directory.

You can also install a tar file (.tar) containing many conda packages by running this command, and replacing “packages-path” and “packages-filename.tar” with your actual path and filename:

conda install...
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R for Windows FAQ

Version for R-3.3.1

B. D. Ripley and D. J. Murdoch

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

This FAQ is for the Windows port of R: it describes features specific to that version. The main R FAQ can be found at

The information here applies only to recent versions of R for Windows, (‘3.1.0’ or later). It is biased towards users of 64-bit Windows.

2 Installation and Usage

2.1 Where can I find the latest version?

Go to any CRAN site (see for a list), navigate to the bin/windows/base directory and collect the file(s) you need. The current release is distributed as an installer ‘R-3.3.1-win.exe’ of about 65MB.

There are also links on that page to the ‘r-patched’ and ‘r-devel’ snapshots. These are frequently updated builds of development versions of R. The ‘r-patched’ build includes bug fixes to the current release, and ‘r-devel’ contains...

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