Grub rescue - error: unknown filesystem


Before reading: The answer below is meant for Ubuntu users who have just updated/recovered/reinstalled/installed OS X. It's likely that the answer will work if this isn't the case (for example, if there are any inconsistencies in your partition table), but I'm not sure.

For me, this happened after updating to OS X Mavericks (10.9). Basically what may have happened is that OS X created a recovery partition ("Recovery HD") that the system only detects sometimes. For example, GParted in Ubuntu will see the recovery partition fine, but when listing the partitions in terminal (fdisk -l), you may not see the partitions.

Diagnosing the issue: Did the OS X update/format/recovery cause this problem?

In order to diagnose that this is indeed the case, first use GRUB rescue to boot into Ubuntu. In order to do this, follow this page or see if any of the other answers on this question can get you into Ubuntu. For me, running the below commands temporarily allowed me to boot...

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Do you get this error: unknown filesystem.
grub rescue> error message when you start your computer?

Then you've come to the right place, because this tutorial will show you step by step how to repair grub in Linux Mint and Ubuntu.

How to Repair GRUB

error: unknown filesystem.
grub rescue>

1. Type the following command and press Enter:


This command will show all the partitions on your hard drive.

Example 1:

grub rescue> ls (hd0) (hd0,gpt5) (hd0,gpt4) (hd0,gpt3) (hd0,gpt2) (hd0,gpt1) (fd0) grub rescue>

Example 2:

grub rescue> ls (hd0) (hd0,msdos5) (hd0,msdos4) (hd0,msdos3) (hd0,msdos2) (hd0,msdos1) (fd0) grub rescue>

2. Now you will need to find the partition where Linux Mint or Ubuntu is installed on. To do this, type the following command and press Enter:

ls (hd0,...)

Do this for every partition until you see something, like:

grub rescue> ls (hd0,gpt5)/./ ../ lost+found/ etc/ media/ bin/ boot/ dev/...
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I’ve recently added a second disk to my server, created a single partition /dev/sdb1 and put a ReiserFS filesystem on it. After system reboot I was presented with the grub rescue shell.

Grub Rescue Shell

That was a bit unexpected, as no GRUB2 related changes were made on the /dev/sda disk that day.

GRUB loading. Welcome to GRUB! error: unknown filesystem Entering rescue mode...

If you get a rescue shell, this usually means that GRUB2 failed to load the “normal” module. Live CDs are good, but a rescue shell is sometimes all we need. Sometimes.

Let’s see what disks and partitions are accessible:

grub rescue> ls (hd0)(hd0,msdos1)(hd1)(hd1,msdos4)(hd1,msdos3)(hd1,msdos2)(hd1,msdos1)

Since I have just one partition created on the new disk, it must be (hd0,msdos1).

In this case hd1 should be my primary disk. Having figured out that, the rest becomes more of less straightforward. My /boot partition is on (hd1,1), and / is on (hd1,2). Other...

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sudo lshw -C disk


description: ATA Disk

product: ST1000LM024 HN-M

vendor: Seagate

physical id: 0.0.0

bus info: scsi@0:0.0.0

logical name: /dev/sda

version: 2BA3

serial: S314J90F448953

size: 931GiB (1TB)

capabilities: partitioned partitioned:dos

configuration: ansiversion=5 sectorsize=512 signature=d5925537


description: DVD-RAM writer

product: DVD+-RW GU90N

vendor: HL-DT-ST

physical id: 0.0.0

bus info: scsi@1:0.0.0

logical name: /dev/cdrom

logical name: /dev/sr0

logical name: /cdrom

version: A100

capabilities: removable audio cd-r cd-rw dvd dvd-r dvd-ram

configuration: ansiversion=5 mount.fstype=iso9660 mount.options=ro,noatime state=mounted status=ready



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Thank you for taking the time to reply to this. He only deleted the partition, and he produced the disk, but even with the disk, it does not seem willing to reinstall Ubuntu. There are two scenario now presented upon booting.

Without Ubuntu disk:
Intel UNDI, PXE-2.0 (build 082)
For Realtek RTL8139(X)/8130/810X PCI Fast Ethernet Controller v2.13 (020326)
PXE-E61 : Media test failure, check cable
PXE-M0F : Exiting PXE ROM.
error : unknown filesystem
grub rescue>

With Ubuntu disk:
Some text flashes by too quick to read, and then lower-center screen shows what looks like a little keyboard symbol to the left, and a little person symbol to the right. There's another brief flash of cursor, though no visible text, and then the ubuntu logo with five loading red dots just stays up indefinitely, with no change.

What would be your suggestion on where to go from here? Is there a key command you press at one of...

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I have a problem. On my laptop I have two operation system: Kali Linux and Windows 10. Yesterday, while working on my windows partition, I have decided to create a new partition (D:) from the C: When I closed my laptop and when I turned it on, Grub rescue error appeared on the screen. If I type ls appears:

(hd0) (hd0,gpt8) (hd0,gpt7) (hd0,gpt6) (hd0,gpt5) (hd0,gpt4) (hd0,gpt3) (hd0,gpt2) (hd0,gpt1) (cd0)

If type ls (hd0,gpt6)/ appears:

./ ..// lost+found/ efi/ config-4.9.0-kali2-amd64 vmlinuz--4.9.0-kali2-amd64 config-4.9.0-kali3-amd64 vmlinuz-4.9.0-kali3-amd64 grub/ ignited.img-4.9.0-kali3-amd64 initrd.img-4.9.0-kali2-amd64

Starting Ubuntu live from USB stick and invoking the command fdisk -l I get the following table:

At this point you could please help me move forward because I don't know what else to try. Thank you in advance for your...

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Welcome to HP Support Forums. I came across your post and would like to help.

I understand that you have an HP laptop and it does not boot into Windows. I read that there is an error message stating "unknown filesystem. Entering rescue mode". Not to worry, I'll do my best to help you.

To provide an accurate resolution, I need a few more details:

Please let me know the exact product model no. This link will help you to find the model no: Did any software changes or updates take place on the laptop recently? Did you have the Linux operating system installed in the laptop?

Do let me know the details and it will help to assist you further. Cheers!

I am an HP Employee

If you find this post helpful then you can help others find the same solution by clicking the “Accept as Solution” button. You can also show your appreciation, with a kudos, by clicking the “Thumbs up"...

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Last night / this morning I copied the root and swap partitions of an Arch Linux installation (stushiba) I had on an old Toshiba hard drive, as well as the "system reserved" and other partitions of a Windows 8 install (stuzate) on another 500GB hard drive, onto a new 2TB Western Digital hard drive using Gparted via an external Arch environment I run off of a microSD card + adapter (sturling).

After doing so, I installed GRUB to the new drive to the best of my ability, but when I try to boot the system with just that drive, this is what I see:

GRUB loading. Welcome to GRUB! error: unknown filesystem. Entering rescue mode... grub rescue>

Running ls doesn't find anything:

grub rescue> ls (hd0) (hd0,msdos4) (hd0,msdos3) (hd0,msdos2) (hd0,msdos1) grub rescue> ls (hd0,msdos4) (hd0,msdos4): Filesystem is unknown. grub rescue> ls (hd0,msdos3) (hd0,msdos3): Filesystem is unknown. grub rescue> ls (hd0,msdos2) (hd0,msdos2): Filesystem is unknown. grub rescue> ls (hd0,msdos1)...
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The reason why this problem occurs because users are generally carried out under the window partition operations (many users will choose to install window and ubuntu dual system), such as disk partitioning and merging, etc., affect the original partition information.

Solution as follows

Step 1

First use the ls command shows the ubuntu partition installation information:

grub rescue>ls

Usually list all disk partition information, such as (hd0, gpt1) (hd0, gpt2) (hd0, gpt3) etc.

Step 2

Execute the following command:

grub rescue>set

Grub will list the current settings, such as prefix=(hd0,gpt1)/boot/grub,root=hd0,gpt1 or prefix=(hd0,gpt1)/grub,root=hd0,gpt1, precisely because these settings wrong , which leads to grub can not find the Ubuntu partition, followed by re-setting grub.

Step 3

If you know what ubuntu is installed on a partition, such as (hd0, gpt1), respectively, execute the following command

grub rescue>...
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Updated Full Tutorials for Dualboot or linux user:
FIx error unknown filesystem Grub rescue mode
unknown filesystem grub rescue mode in Linux or ubuntu or windows
Sometimes when you start your system (with dual boots) an unknown file system error is displayed and your system is in rescue you can solve this by following the commands as shown in the video.

use this:
1. grub rescue/ set boot=(hd0,msdos5)

2. grub rescue/ set prefix=(hd0,msdos5)/boot/grub

3. grub...

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I installed Bodhi 2.4 on my HP Pavilion notebook yesterday, and everything went fine. Later I went into windows 7 and deleted an empty partition after Bodhi's swap space partition. I think this is what caused the error. Now when I boot my computer, it says

Error unknown filesystem:

grub rescue>

I booted to the live session from my flashdrive and tried to play around with grub but couldn't install it successfully. Bodhi is on the sda5 partition.

From what I read here: Grub Troubleshooting

grub is "unable to find the grub folder or its contents are missing/corrupted."

How would I point it to the grub folder? I think it's under boot/grub on the sda5 partition.


I think I solved my own problem. In grub rescue I typed:

set prefix=(hd0,msdos5)/boot/grub root=(hd0,msdos5) insmod normal normal

and it let me login normally.

New Edit:

Well the above code was only a one-time fix so I had to input it each time I...

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What is the cause of this error?

The reason for this error is due to the abnormal deletion of a partition where a second/dual OS is installed. For example, this could be a system where you were dual-booting between Windows 8 and Linux, but you deleted the Linux partition. When setting up such a system, each partition contains an MBR (Master Boot Record), which contains vital information on how to boot your operating systems. After deleting the partition or OS, the MBR still contains old boot sector values for both operating systems and booting up can give you an error such as GRUB RESCUE – No Such Partition.

How I can fix the ‘grub rescue’ error?

This article will outline the solution on a Windows 8 system, but the solution is very similar for Windows 7 as well. First you need a Windows 8 (or Windows 7) installation CD/DVD or bootable USB stick.

Booting into the Windows 8, select Repair your computer.

If you have created system...

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hi there i restarted my pc i was in windows 8 about to try and install windows xp on top along with zorin but when i turned my pc back on it came up with
error: unknown filesystem.
entering rescue mode...
grub rescue>
so then i went online on youtube and found how to fix it but it diden't work i put in ls the the partitions came up then i tryed one of them by typing ls (hd0,msdos4) then enter it said (hd0,msdos4): filesystem is ext2. then i put
set boot=(hd0,msdos4) then i hit enter then i put
set prefix=(hd0,msdos4)/boot/grub then i hit enter then i put
insmod normal and i hit enter and it came up with
error file `/boot/grub/i386-pc/normal. mod' not found
what can i do to fix it...

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Hi everyone,

I have a problem with my laptop.

I had windows 7 installed for quite some time, and now decided to install ubuntu too. I used Easeus Partition Master Home Edition to create a new partition in my drive and make room for ubuntu.

I was able to install ubuntu succesfully and I even had the chance to install a few programs and make some updates the first time I used it. But once I rebooted and tried to start windows, an error occurred and now I see this in the screen:

error: unkown filesystem
grub rescue>

Searching in the internet I found that Rescatux could be the solution. I downloaded it, burned the iso in a cd and followed the instructions. No success! The operation failed.

What can I do? any...

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we cloned a working boot disk image of opensuse 13.1 to another external drive using dd

we started the system with a rescue disk, and, in a chroot environment, ran the various configs & scripts to make the external disk bootable
(edited /boot/grub2/ ; changed /etc/default/grub and /etc/default/grub_installdevice ; ran grub2-install , grub2-makecfg, mkinitrd)

when we boot from the internal device, we get "unknown filesystem" and grub drops to the grub-rescue prompt.

> ls shows us the external device partitions (hd0,msdos1)...(hd0,msdos4) and the internal device partitions (hd1,msdos1)...(hd1,msdos3)

hd0,msdos2 and hd1,msdos2 are both btrfs filesystems

> ls (hd0,msdos2)/ gives us "unknown filesystem"

> ls (hd1,msdos1)/ gives us the root directory listing for that filesystem -- SLES 11 (not the source image)

any suggestions on what's going on here?
other cloning of this disk image have gone fine


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Boot Info Script 0.61 [1 April 2012]

============================= Boot Info Summary: ===============================

=> Grub2 (v1.99) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks at sector 1 of
the same hard drive for core.img. core.img is at this location and looks
in partition 94 for .

sda1: __________________________________________________ ________________________

File system: ntfs
Boot sector type: Windows Vista/7: NTFS
Boot sector info: No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
Operating System:
Boot files: /BOOTMGR /BOOT/BCD

sda2: __________________________________________________ ________________________

File system: ntfs
Boot sector type: Windows Vista/7: NTFS
Boot sector info: No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
Operating System:
Boot files: /bootmgr /Boot/BCD

sda3: __________________________________________________...

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Jan 9, 2010

I have dual boot with Ubuntu 9.10 and Windows 7. Today, after using Partition Wizard on Windows to resize its partition, I got the following message when reboot:


I dont actually know what to do, I've been reading some threads on the internet but nothing equal to my case, only people who installed Windows after Linux and lost GRUB. Do I just need a live CD to reinstall GRUB? Can somebody tell what to do?


Mar 7, 2011

Yesterday I installed the latest version of ubuntu to my computer that was already running windows 7. I had everything working fine until in windows I deleted a partition that had nothing in it.

After this I restarted but I can't get into either OS. I get an error that says Error: unknown filesystem grub rescue>

I think I need to fix something in grub. I have been booting off of a usb stick with linux on it in the mean time.

Mar 7, 2011
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Grub has a small core image that is loaded at boot time. The core image dynamically loads modules which provide further functionality. i386-pc/normal.mod not found indicates that grub can not load normal.mod, which is a grub module that provides the normal command. To load normal.mod you need to tell grub where it is. To do this you can use the grub command-line (aka Rescue Console). Grub will start the command-line if there is a problem booting, or you can start it manually by holding the shift key as grub starts (to force show the grub menu), and then pressing the 'c' key.

Using grub you can explore the drives, partitions, and filesystems. You need to:

locate the grub install using ls or search.file set grub variables $prefix and $root load and run the normal module


The following is just an example. You will need to adapt it to your local drive and partition setup.

where is normal.mod? look in some likely locations

grub> search.file...
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I have Windows 10 HOME installed on my system. After I installed Windows 10 HOME, I installed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS on a separate partition so that I could dual boot.

I removed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS by deleting the partition it was installed on. Now I am unable to start my system. At boot, my system stops at the Grub command line.

I want to boot to my Windows 10 installation which I haven't removed from my system.

This is displayed at startup:

GNU GRUB version 2.02 beta2-9ubuntu1.3
minimal BASH-like editing is supported.for the first word, TAB lists possible commands completions.anywhere else TAB lists the possible device or file completion. grub>

How can I boot my Windows partition from this grub...

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